Buff-brown upper-parts, heavily marked with black, greyish (grayish) facial disk. Under-parts paler buff-brown with black streaks, and fine brown barring on belly, white throat.
Widespread, but everywhere scarce, locally endangered.
Bessarabia, Crimea, Caucasus, Asia Minor, Palestine, Syria and Iran.
Mountainous forest, semi-desert and rocky slopes land.
large birds, a variety of small- and medium-sized mammals including rabbits and hares, roe deer fawns, young foxes, hedgehogs and farmyard cats. Also frogs, newts and crabs